The accident happened when cargo transfer was underway from tank container to the facility of HIL (Hindustan Insecticides Ltd). Assistants Manager Paul Thomas succumbed to burn injuries on Friday, 04th November.
News on The Times of India says “HIL employees said CS2 was usually brought from Mumbai and Gujarat. “The imported tanker has both vents on the top while the indigenous ones have one in the bottom and the other on the top. The technicians were handling an imported tanker after a long gap, “one of them said.”
Read full news here
Now the question arise is, how indigenous tanks in India for transporting Carbon Disulphide have bottom opening?
Let us look at the regulations for transporting Carbon Disulphide to ascertain tank provisions for carriage of same.
UN Model regulations, IMDG Code for Sea Transport and ADR for Road Transport have assigned tank code T14 for UN 1131 Carbon Disulphide.
UN 1131, CARBON DISULPHIDE, Class 3, Subsidiary Risk 6.1
Packing Group I
Tank code: T14
Tank Provisions: TP2, TP7, TP13
TP2 The degree of filling prescribed in 126.96.36.199.3 shall not be exceeded.
TP7 Air shall be eliminated from the vapour space by nitrogen or other means
TP13 Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided when this substance is transported, unless no self-contained breathing apparatus, as required by SOLAS regulation II-2/19 (II-2/54), is on board.
Portable tank instructions also permitted: T19, T20, T22
*When this column indicates “not allowed”, bottom openings are not permitted when the substance to be transported is a liquid (see 188.8.131.52.1).
184.108.40.206.1: Certain substances shall not be transported in portable tanks with bottom openings. When the applicable portable tank instruction identified in the Dangerous Goods List and described in 220.127.116.11.6 indicates that bottom openings are prohibited, there shall be no openings below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit. When an existing opening is closed, it shall be accomplished by internally and externally welding one plate to the shell.
Carbon Disulphide is extremely flammable liquid with Ignition temperature 100°C and Flash point: -30°C. The vapours which are heavier than air can travel long distance to a source of ignition and can flash back. Vapours of carbon disulphide can even be ignited by coming into contact with ordinary light bulb.
In the old days, due to extreme flammability, carbon disulphide was prohibited to be carried on any ship which is carrying explosive (class 1) cargo.
Later, due to increase in ships length, the rule changed, permitting to carry explosive cargo and carbon disulphide simultaneously on same voyage provided the stowage is “Separated longitudinally by an intervening complete compartment or hold from” Class 1”.
Since stowage category for carbon disulphide is “D” , on deck only, containers packed with explosive cargo and carbon disulphide loading on deck need to be as below.
Horizontal (Fore and Aft): Minimum Horizontal Distance of 24 meters
Horizontal (Athwartship): Prohibited