Pesticides are used to destroy, repel, or mitigate any pests from crops, warehouses, homes etc.
Various types are there in the market some of which are listed below
|Algicides or Algaecides||Algae|
|Miticides or Acaricides||Mites|
Some of the pesticides are plant derived and some are chemicals
Lets look at the WHO guidelines for classification of pesticides and related Transport regulations for pesticides by ocean going vessels ( IMDG Code )
THE WHO RECOMMENDED CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES BY HAZARD
was approved by the WHO in 1975 and the guidelines were first published first in 1978 and renewed there after every few years.
In 2002, the United nations committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous goods and the UNCETDG/GHS issued a document called “The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals”. This document provide guidance for a globally harmonized system to address the classification of chemicals, labelling and safety data sheets.
Basis above, GHS, WHO hazard classes had to be aligned as per GHS Acute Toxicity for acute oral or dermal as the triggering point for allocating pesticides to WHO Hazard Class.
The revised Document is published by WHO as The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2009
Click here to download above document.
Structure of The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification 2009
PART I RECOMMENDED CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES BY HAZARD
This part sets out the basis of classification considering acute risk to health , single or multiple exposures, that might be encountered by any person handling the product as per the manufactures guidelines.
Basis of Classification
The Classification is based primarily on the acute oral and dermal toxicity to the rat as this is the standard procedure in toxicology.
In practice, the majority of classifications will be made on the acute oral LD50 value. However, dermal toxicity must always be considered since it has been found that, under most conditions of handling pesticides, a high proportion of the total exposure is dermal. Classification based on dermal data in a class indicating a great risk is necessary when the dermal LD50 values indicate greater hazard than oral LD50 values. ( Source WHO )
Revised criteria for classification (Triggered by GHS )
|WHO Class||LD50 for the rat
(mg/kg body weight)
|Ia||Extremely hazardous||< 5||< 50|
|III||Slightly hazardous||Over 2000||Over 2000|
|U||Unlikely to present acute hazard||5000 or higher||5000 or higher|
PART II GUIDELINES TO CLASSIFICATION OF PESTICIDES BY HAZARD
This part is consists of 5 tables
Table 1 EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS (Class Ia) active ingredients (technical grade) of pesticides
Table 2 HIGHLY HAZARDOUS (Class Ib) active ingredients (technical grade) of pesticides
Table 3 MODERATELY HAZARDOUS (Class II) active ingredients (technical grade) of pesticides
Table 4 SLIGHTLY HAZARDOUS (Class III) active ingredients (technical grade) of pesticides
Table 5 Active ingredients unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use
In addition, the following tables show the details stated:
Table 6 Active ingredients not included in the Classification and believed to be obsolete or discontinued for use as pesticides
Table 7 Pesticides subject to the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure
Table 8 List of gaseous or volatile fumigants not classified under the WHO Recommended classification of pesticides by hazard
ANNEX How to find the hazard class of a formulation
INDEX by CAS number
by name of active ingredient
Lets look at one of the table and understand what each column is indicating
Table 1. Extremely hazardous (Class Ia) technical grade active ingredients in pesticides
Column 1 : Common Name [ISO] denotes common name of the active ingredient approved by the International Organization for Standardization
Column 2 : CAS Registry number
Column 3 : UN Number as per UN Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods, Eleventh revision (1999) . UN Number is given only in tables 1,2,3 & 4
Column 4 : Chemical type
Below are the codes and corresponding chemical types
AS Arsenic compound
BP Bipyridylium derivative
CO Coumarin derivative
OT Organotin compound
CU Copper compound
HG Mercury compound
NP Nitrophenol derivative
OC Organochlorine compound
OP Organophosphorus compound
T Triazine derivative
Column 5 : Physical state. Refers only to the active ingredient. L denotes liquid, including
solids with a melting point below 50oC; oil denotes oily liquids and S solids, including waxes.
Column 6 : Main use
AC acaricide L larvicide
AP aphicide M molluscicide
B bacteriostat (soil) MT miticide
FM fumigant N nematocide
F fungicide, other than for seed O other use for plant pathogens
treatment PGR plant growth regulator
FST fungicide, for seed treatment R rodenticide
H herbicide RP( ) repellant (species)
I insecticide -S applied to soil: not used with herbicides
IGR insect growth regulator or plant growth regulators
Ix ixodicide (for tick control) SY synergist
Column 7: GHS: This column indicates the classification of the pesticide according to
“The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals” (GHS).
See http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev03/03files_e.html. The categories for oral and
dermal routes are used
Column 8 : LD50 :
The LD50 value is a statistical estimate of the number of mg of toxicant per kg of body weight required to kill 50% of a large population of test animals: the rat is used unless otherwise stated.
Column 9: Remarks. This column is used to indicate cases in which the classification of a
technical product has been adjusted (i.e., the oral LD50 value is not directly used as the basis
of classification); Major irritant properties are also noted although they do not affect the
Publications mentioned in column 9 can be found at http://www.who.int/ipcs/
IMDG Code Requirements
Apart from meeting all the requirements of IMDG Code, when applicable, pesticides requiring technical name to supplement the proper shipping name ISO common name(s), other name(s) in the WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification, or the name(s) of the active substance(s) may be used.
Details of classification of pesticides for sea transport can be found in section 126.96.36.199 of IMDG Code
Entry in Dangerous Goods List may have been assigned with Special Provision in which case the stakeholders shall read, understand and ensure consignment meets all the relevant requirements of IMDG Code.
International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, FAO (2003), available at
Guidelines on Good Labelling Practice for Pesticides, FAO (1995), available at http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Code/Download/label.pdf
http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_rev03/03files_e.html. The categories for oral and
dermal routes are used.
Ensure use and disposal of pesticides are carried out in the correct recommended manner and follow all applicable regulations and guidelines.
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